e-ISSN: 1309-517X
The role of school socioeconomic status in school-wide technology integration in the U.S.

Shonn Cheng 1 * , Mary Parker 2

CONT ED TECHNOLOGY, Volume 15, Issue 2, Article No: ep422

Submitted: 30 May 2022, Published Online: 11 March 2023

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This study aimed to examine the relations between first-order and second-order barriers and ICT (information and communications technology) integration across schools with different SES (socioeconomic status) levels in the US. This study was based on a nationally representative sample of public elementary and secondary schools included in the fast response survey system (FRSS)–educational technology in the US public schools. Multiple-group path modeling was employed as the main analytic method. The results showed that in advantaged schools, first-order and second-order barriers demonstrated additive effects on ICT integration. However, in disadvantaged schools, first-order and second-order barriers showed multiplicative effects on ICT integration. This study suggests that in advantaged schools, eradicating second-order barriers can compensate for the constraints on ICT integration imposed by first-order barriers. However, in disadvantaged schools, removing second-order barriers will not be effective if first-order barriers are not addressed first. This study contributes to the literature by highlighting the role of school SES in planning school-wide ICT integration. Also, a contextualized model is proposed to capture the differential relations between barriers and ICT integration in specific school contexts.



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