e-ISSN: 1309-517X
The Effect of Stereoscopic Three-Dimensional Images on Vocabulary Learning

Regina Kaplan Rakowski 1 *

CONT ED TECHNOLOGY, Volume 10, Issue 4, pp. 324-337

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Vocabulary is crucial for language learning. Therefore, searching for the most effective methods to master vocabulary is an important quest. This study investigated the effect of stereoscopic three-dimensional (S3D) images on recall and retention of foreign language vocabulary. S3D images, frequently used in virtual reality visualizations, are highly realistic and differ from non-stereoscopic three-dimensional (NS3D) images in that they provide an impression of depth. In this within-subject study, American subjects (N = 82) were exposed to 16 Polish words accompanied by corresponding images. Half of these images were in NS3D format, and half were in S3D format. The vocabulary was counterbalanced throughout four randomly distributed versions of the experiment. Quantitative data were drawn from immediately administered and one-week-delayed productive and receptive vocabulary tests. Qualitative data were gathered through background questionnaires and follow-up surveys, which included a mixture of open-ended and Likert scale questions.  Two-tailed, paired t-tests showed no significant difference on vocabulary recall and retention of test scores for words represented with NS3D and S3D images. Post hoc tests revealed that lower performance on S3D images occurred only for those subgroups of subjects who exhibited discomfort or lack of experience with S3D technology, or both.