An Exploration of Teachers’ Skills, Perceptions and Practices of ICT in Teaching and Learning in the Ghanaian Second-Cycle Schools
This study was conducted to explore teachers’ skills, perceptions, and practices about ICT in second-cycle institutions in Ghana. Questionnaires were distributed to 273 teachers in different departments, 241 were returned, and 231 were valid for data analysis, representing a response rate of 85%. The validity of the questionnaire was approved by a panel of experts in the field. The Cronbach’s alpha reliability coefficient was 0.91. Descriptive statistics and correlation were used to analyze data. Of the 231 teachers, 66% were males and 34% were females. Majority of the respondents were between the ages 30-39. The correlation analysis revealed positive correlation between ICT use and teachers’ competences. Further, teachers’ perceptions in terms of using ICT were found to be positive but not statistically significant. Finally, the study revealed inverse correlations among ICT use, age, and teaching experience. The descriptive results indicated that teachers’ knowledge in basic ICT applications as well as integrating ICT into teaching and learning processes was low. These results provide evidence that the introduction of ICT in teaching and learning has not brought any change in the delivery of education in second-cycle schools in Ghana. This also implies that teachers have not shifted from teacher-centered instruction to student-centered learning. From the findings of the study, it is recommended that courses such as computer supported learning, ICTs and designing instructional materials should be introduced in initial teacher training programs to improve teachers’ level of confidence and perceptions towards the use of ICT.